Operating principle of control valve

The most common final control element in the process control industry is the control valve. Control valves operate the flow of a fluid, such as gas, steam, water, or chemical compound, to compensate for load disturbances and to bring the adjusted process variables as close as possible to the desired set point.

The control valve may be the most important and sometimes most neglected part of the control loop. The reason is usually that instrument engineers are unfamiliar with many aspects of terminology as well as engineering disciplines such as fluid mechanics, metallurgy, noise control, piping and container design, etc., depending on the severity of the conditions of service, these aspects may be involved.

Any control loop typically consists of a process state sensor, transmitter, and controller that compares the "process variables" received from the transmitter with "set points" (that is, the required process conditions). The controller then sends the calibration signal to the "final control element", the last part of the loop, and the "muscle" of the process control system. When the sensor of the process variable is the eye and the controller is the brain, the final control element is the hand of the control loop. This makes it the most important part of the automatic control system, and sometimes even the least understood part.

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